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Though, at one time, Americas most important contribution to the world of spices, chilli is today one of India's major export attractions. An annual plant, chilli comes in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, colours and in different degrees of pungency. It is thus variously called capsicum, paprika, pimento, sweet pepper, red pepper, cayenne pepper and bird's eye chilli depending on the type of chilli and the manner in which it is prepared and used. An indispensible culinary spice in several parts of the world, Indian chilli is grown largely in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Tamilnadu and in a number of other states as a round-the-year crop. The medium pungent 'Sannam' and the mildly pungent 'Mundu' chillies are internationally recognised as the finest in quality. Products are available as powder and oleoresins. India also offers high capsaicin content chilli with or without stalks and with clipped stalks,and fresh and dried capsicum. Indian chilli is exported to USA, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, the Middle East and the Far East.
A native of the Mediterranean, coriander is the dried ripe fruit of an annual herb with several branches and serrated leaves. The name 'coriander' is based on the Greek work 'kopis' which means 'bug'. The whole plant, when freshly bruised, gives out a peculiarly strong, rather obnoxious odour similar to that associated with bugs. Happily, when the plant grows and matures, these disagreeable traits are wholly lost and the ripe fruits are completely free from them. A fragrant spice, coriander is today valued as much for its medicinal properties as for its use as a condiment. It finds extensive application in several kinds of foods, beverages, liquors and perfumes. Coriander requires full exposure to sunlight but with less heat and medium-to-heavy loamy soil, good drainage and well-distributed moisture. Since many parts of India meets all these conditions, coriander is a thriving crop in this country. Since the Indian farmers prefer organic cultivation, the quality is good. The major producers of Indian coriander are Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Madhya Pradesh.

The dried fruit of a small herbaceous plant, cumin was quite popular even during the Biblical times as an efficient digestive and as a food flavour for ceremonial feasting. Though native to Egypt and the Mediterranean, cumin is now mostly produced in India.

Cumin has an intensely strong flavour, much similar to caraway. Indian cumin finds worldwide use in foods, beverages, liquors, medicines, toiletries and perfumery. The spice is of particular value in the blending of Indian curry powder. Indian cumin grows abundantly in the mild, equable climate of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh where rich, well-drained, sandy, loamy soil and the sunny, conducive environment are available. The quality is better by the organic cultivation adopted by Indian farmers. Indian cumin is exported in its natural as well as powdered form, besides as essential oil. Exports are mostly to USA, Singapore, Japan, UK and North Africa.

Ancient Indians used fennel as a condiment and culinary spice. In Greece, it was a symbol of success. In Rome, the young fennel shoots were used as food. Pliny considered it good for improved vision. Culpeper recommends it as an antidote for poison. The dried ripe fruit of aromatic, herbaceous plant, fennel grows well in most mild climates. In India, it thrives in the sunny, limey, well-drained loams of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. The pleasingly warm, sweet smell and the clean appearance are clear indications of how well Indian fennel retains its exclusive quality even after drying. Well-known as 'Saunf' Indian fennel is used in food, medicine, liquor and perfume. India exports substantial quantities of fennel to USA, Singapore, UK, UAE, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Japan in a variety of forms including seed, powder and volatile oils.
Fenugreek is one of the earliest spices known to man. Ancient Egyptians used it as a food, medicine and an embalming agent. The ripe, dried fruit of a quick-growing annual leguminous herb, fenugreek has a strong, pleasant and quite peculiar odour reminiscent of maple. Traditionally, fenugreek grows best in well-drained loams with a low rainfall. In India, this spice is often cultivated as a cover crop in citrus-fruit groves to take advantage of their leguminous nature. The major producers of Indian fenugreek are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Commercially known as 'Methi', Indian fenugreek comes in several well-known varieties such as 'Desi' and 'Champa'. The spice is exported in its whole and powdered forms as well as in the form of extracted oil which is extensively used in perfumery. The major importers of Indian fenugreek are Saudi Arabia, Japan, Malaysia, USA, The UK, Singapore and Sri Lanka.
The fruit of a tropical tree, tamarind is an indispensible spice in most south Indian kitchens. Today, India is the only producer of tamarind on a commercial scale. A large part of India's production of tamarind is exported to West Asia, Europe and America, where it is used in such food specialities like Worcestershire sauce. This spice also comes in the forms of pulp and juice concentrates which mainly go into the preparation of cool drinks, seafoods and a range of sophisticated cuisine.
The dried rhizome of a herbaceous plant, turmeric is closely related to ginger. The spice is also sometimes called 'Indian saffron' thanks to its brilliant yellow colour. Indian turmeric has been known to the world since ancient times. Several unique properties of Indian turmeric make it the ideal choice as a food flavour, an effective ingredient in medicines and cosmetics, and as a natural colourant. With its rich curcumin content, which imparts the distinctive yellow colour, and other inherent qualities, Indian turmeric is considered the best in the world. India is today the largest exporter of turmeric to discerning countries like the Middle East, the UK, USA and Japan. Some of the well-accepted varieties are: 'Alleppey Finger' and 'Erode turmeric' (from Tamil Nadu), 'Rajapore' and 'Sangli turmeric' (from Maharashtra) and 'Nizamabad Bulb' (from Andhra Pradesh). India also exports turmeric in powder form and as oleoresin.